Ovarian Cysts

Facts Ovarian Cysts

  • A cyst is a fluid-filled bladder
  • Approximately 10% of women before menopause have ovarian cysts and usually gives no discomfort or symptoms
  • Cysts are usually 3-5 cm, but can be 30 cm
  • The symptoms are – if there are any symptoms – abdominal pressure, abrupt and trips show pain, increasing the extent of stomach
  • Some cysts produces hormones that include may cause bleeding disorders
  • Some cysts can be malignant
  • Treatment is either surgical or pending checks

What are ovarian cysts?

Cyst is the Latin name for some liquid filled. Or cysts in the ovaries is all fluid-filled processes. The cysts develop mostly in those cells that are already present in the ovary. Most smaller cysts are normal and are therefore called physiological cysts. They occur as a result of ovulation and usually disappear within 1-3 months. Other cysts due to the growth of different cell types in the ovary.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a particular disease, which is characterized by many small cysts in the ovaries.

How common is ovarian cysts?

Approximately 10% of all menstruating women between 45 and 50 have one or more ovarian cysts. Cysts can come and go without you noticing.

What causes ovarian cysts?

Normal cysts

In the context of the normal ovulation is formed a number of small cysts (follicle) surrounding the maturing ova in the ovaries. One of these egg “wins the race” against the other eggs, cyst ruptures and the egg comes out of the abdominal cavity, where it is captured by the fallopian tube. Immediately after this happens ovulation hormonal changes, which stops the maturation of the other eggs, and the cysts around the remaining embryos are formed (the burst). Sometimes bursts these follicle not but appear as one or more cysts in the ovary. In PCOS, there are many small follicle in both ovaries. Other types of “normal” cysts can be found on the ovary (the corpus luteum cysts, theca lutein cysts, endometriosecyster).

So it is normal to have cysts in the ovary and the vast majority disappear without anyone discovering they have been there since they do not cause discomfort.

Benign tumors of the ovary

A wide variety of tumors may occur in the ovaries. Some of these tumors are cystic and consists predominantly of liquid, while others may contain more solid areas.

There are several different types of benign tumors that emanate either from the ovarian surface or from the interior of the ovaries. Some cysts or tumors called serous cystadenomer and have an aqueous content and others are mucinous with a slimy content. The serous cystadenomer constitutes about 25% of all benign tumors of the ovary, and they are found on both sides in 20% of cases. Both serous and mucinøste cystadenomer can be large – up to 30 cm in diameter. In rare cases, these cysts lead to the development of mucus-producing cells in the peritoneum, which can be the basis for cysts elsewhere in the abdominal cavity.

Dermoid cysts constitute 10% of the benign tumors of the ovary. This type occurs mainly in young women and is bilateral in 10-15%. These dermoid cysts is also known as tvillingecyster and may contain different types of tissues, most commonly hair, fat, cartilage, and thyroid tissue. There is no question of a twin or a pregnancy. The development of the different tissue types can occur when the ovaries are special bodies with many development potentials.

Endometriosis is a condition that affects approximately 10% of South African women. It is characterized in that the endometrium (the mucous membrane which is softened by menstrual out) other than in the uterus – most often into the peritoneal cavity behind the uterus, the ovaries, the bladder and the intestine, and the peritoneum. Endometriosis in the ovaries called endometriosis cysts. They called and chokoladecyster because the content is thick and brown.

In rare cases, tumors originating from the interior of the ovary produce both female and male sex hormones, which can cause endocrine disruption.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cysts?

Genes from the cyst:

Less ovarian cysts do not give symptoms. There will usually first symptoms when the cysts or tumors grow so large that they press on the bladder or rectum or stomach volume increases, and pants can not be closed.

If a cyst is around (torkverer), and the blood supply to the cyst would become clamped may cause acute abdominal pain. Pain often abruptly and is sustained on one side of the abdomen downward. There may be cases like in the days or weeks before.

There may also be pain if there are holes in the cyst or if there is bleeding from the cyst. The pain often comes as ‘a bolt from the sky’. The pain will in most cases slow down in a matter of hours and will disappear by itself in the course of a day or two. In some cases, stronger pain or suspected bleeding in the abdominal cavity is an urgent surgery is needed.

Endometriosecyster can be present without other symptoms, but there may be endometiose other places that have led to generation. There will usually be severe menstrual pain, painful bowel movements, painful intercourse and frequent urination.

Genes from hormone-producing cysts

In rare cases, the tumor / cyst produce hormones that cause symptoms.

The most common genes are irregular bleeding because a cyst produces estrogen or progesterone – two of the ordinary female sex hormones. Cysts – and genes – often disappear within a few months and is completely harmless.

Other cysts can produce other hormones that can provide male pubic hair, enlarged clitoris, deep voice, and high blood pressure.

What symptoms should you pay particular attention to?

As described above, there can be both symptoms of the cyst and from any hormones.

Genes from the cyst

Do you experience tightness or heaviness can be a cyst. Increasing difficulty in passing stools or frequent urination can also be caused by a cyst. Do you feel severe pain sometimes – possibly. radiating into one leg – it may be the cyst, it comes. Can you no longer fit pants and pressed it up to the stomach, it may be a larger cyst. You must be examined by a gynecologist, but not acute.

Sudden onset of pain may be a cyst, which is fractured or the ovary, which is rotated about its blood supply. A blown cyst is harmless, but very painful. The cyst may be soft in the belly, and you should contact a doctor for a gynecological examination. Is cyst – and ovary – twisted ovary can go to if blood flow ceases altogether. It is therefore important to get to a doctor who can make or refute the diagnosis.

Genes from any hormone production

To menstruation a few times a year are missed, is delayed, weak or extra heavy is not unusual and is not synonymous with a hormone-producing cyst. Are there persistent bleeding disorders, breast tenderness, enlarged clitoris, deep voice or high blood pressure can be a sign of one of the rare hormone-producing cysts.

How is it diagnosed?

The symptoms could be indicative of the diagnosis. In many cases, cysts are discovered by chance to the doctor in connection with a gynecological examination.

In the gynecological examination the doctor may feel many of these tumors / cysts. The bigger they are, the easier it is to discover them. In order to provide a definite diagnosis, referred to a gynecologist, taking anultrasound scan of the abdomen . If it is suspected malignant lesions can be completed with a blood sample, wherein the measured CA-125 – which among other things is a marker for ovarian cancer. CA-125 may be elevated in many peaceful conditions, eg. by pregnancy, endometriosis and during menstruation.

What treatment is there?

Follicle checked after a few months, where the vast majority will have disappeared spontaneously.

If the cyst grows or causes symptoms, it may be necessary with surgical removal of the cyst.

In most cases, ovarian cysts removed by a telescope operation to be carried out under general anesthesia during hospitalization. By the operation will try to remove the entire cyst while preserving as much ovarian tissue as possible. In some cases, one ovary will be impossible to save. If it becomes necessary to remove an ovary, the other ovary take over, and there will not be changes in hormone production or in the menstrual cycle and it is still possible to become pregnant. Removed one ovary will possibly go into menopause a year earlier. When ovarian cysts in women after menopause, it may be more appropriate to remove the ovaries completely. This is because the cysts after menopause often hides a cancer and that the woman’s hormone production decreases significantly after menopause, and therefore do not lose hormone production by removing the entire ovary.

How is long-term prospects?

The vast majority of ovarian cysts are benign. Some women seem to have an increased tendency to get cysts several times, but nobody knows why. Some believe that the propensity to form cysts can be reduced with the pill, but it is somewhat controversial.

If you have a cyst (cysts) should be seen and possible. followed by a gynecologist. They grow, surgery can be considered. Are they through a period unchanged and not cancer suspect they can often be left untouched.

How do I avoid or aggravate ovarian cysts?

When eating birth control pills (not mini-pills) has not ovulate and therefore do not “yellow legme” which can cause cysts. Endometriosecyster be removed by surgery, but can be restored if one is not in sufficient medical treatment. It is usually a pill, IUS, progestin pills or anti-hornmon, shuts down the ovaries own hormone production.

The other cysts can do nothing to avoid, but they have had cysts several times, it’s a good idea to be examined regularly and at least at the symptoms.

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