The female genital tract consists of the large and small labia, clitoris, vagina, uterus, both fallopian tubes and two ovaries. In front of the front wall of the sheath is the urethra, as in the human female are 3-4 cm long, and leading to the urinary bladder, which is located in front of the uterus.

Ovulation and menstrual cycle

Every month egg matures in the ovaries and eggs are released and picked up by the fallopian tubes. Via tubal wandering the egg down to the uterus. If the egg has been fertilized, it attaches itself in the womb and develops gradually into a fetus. If the egg is not fertilized, there is a hormonal change which causes the lining of the uterus is shed, and there comes a menstrual period. If the egg has been fertilized, there is other hormonal changes, and endometrium continues to grow and missed periods.

The menstrual cycle is governed by a complex system of hormones, which are produced and released from the brain , the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland , and ovaries. The cycle can be disrupted by changes in hormonal balance, either physical or psychological reasons.

Menstruation and menopause


If you are a woman of fertile age (child bearing age), you ovulate every month. One of the two ovaries releases an egg. The egg is a single cell which measures 0.15 mm. It caught the fallopian tube and transported through the oviduct into the uterus. This “tour” takes about 5 days. You easiest pregnant if you have intercourse 1-2 days before ovulation.

After intercourse sperm will find its own way through the cervix and uterus and reach the fallopian tubes.

Sperm can live up to six days, so if you have sexual intercourse during the period 5 days before the release of the egg and 24 hours after, a sperm be able to fertilize the egg.

Some days before ovulation, the lining of the uterus thicker and more blood filled. The body prepares for a possible pregnancy. When a fertilized egg reaches the uterus, the lining is prepared to egg gets stuck.

Once a fertilized egg is stuck, it will grow, divide and become an embryo, an early embryo. If that happens, you’re pregnant.

No fertilization

If the egg is not fertilized, the thick blood-filled mucous membrane of the uterus is shed along with the unfertilized eggs ca. 14 days after ovulation. Menstrual fluid fit through the cervix into the vagina and out of the body.

This rejection is called menstruation or menstrual period, and the mean duration of 5 days. Over the next nine days grows a new lining up in the womb, and the process of ovulation resumes.

The entire cycle lasts on average 28 days. In most women varies cycle length of a day or two, sometimes longer. Each stage of the menstrual cycle is controlled by several co-acting hormones, produced and released from the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovaries.


Menstrual periods usually start in 11 to 14 years of age. The first menstruation is called menarken.

The periods are usually irregular the first 1-2 years because ovulation at the time does not happen regularly.

Menstrual periods become irregular again after about 45 years of age due to irregular ovulation, and gradually stop menstruation altogether. This is called menopause .

Female genital organs

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