Contraception

Facts About Birth Control

  • There are many different methods of contraception
  • These differ from each other in terms of safety, ease of use, protection against disease and side effects
  • A brief introduction to both non-hormonal and hormonal contraceptives

Generally

Image of different types of contraception
Image of different types of contraception

There are several different methods of contraception. These differ from each other in terms of safety, ease of use, protection against disease and side effects.

The following is a brief introduction:

Non-hormonal contraceptives

“Nature Methods”

  • Natural methods include interrupted intercourse and the use of so-called “Safe period”
  • These methods do not protect against STD s and the efficiency is low. They are therefore best suited for knowledgeable few who can accept an unexpected pregnancy, and the woman has a regular cycle and knows when there is ovulation
  • By means of the ovulation-jack (available from pharmacies) may be a urine sample by determining when there is ovulation
  • The first six months after giving birth is a relatively safe period, but requires full breastfeeding. This means that the child only fed with mother’s milk, and that has not yet come menstruation. If one of these points are not met, reduced safety considerably

Spiral

  • Spiral put into the uterine cavity. Pregnancy is prevented in that the coil interferes with sperm motility and prevents a fertilized ovum in attaching to the uterine wall
  • Spiral is a safe contraception and is increasingly used
  • There are two types of spiral – copper coil and IUS(The latter is a mixture of coil and hormone replacement therapy). The disadvantage of copper coil is that it often gives heavier menstrual bleeding and in some cases more menstrual pain. Using IUS bleeding will in most cases be less than normal. The bleeding may also not come at all for long periods. Hormone Spiral is probably the most secure contraceptive
  • Spiral does not protect against pregnancy outside the uterus. It also does not protect against the transmission of STD s. There is an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Copper Spiral is suitable as cooling contraception when inserted within 7 days after unprotected sex

Barrier Methods

  • The condom is the only contraceptive that protects against STD s. Condoms should be used by anyone who has sexual intercourse with people, where the possibility of an infection.
  • The diaphragm positioned as a shield in front of the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterine cavity. It must be set up before intercourse and remain there for 6 hours after intercourse. No significant side effects, but can be a bit cumbersome to use
  • Barrier methods security depends largely on proper use. Used properly counted methods as good birth control methods, which are free of side effects
  • Spermicide increases the safety of condom or pessary while spermicide alone is not adequate contraception

Hormonal birth control methods

Common to the hormonal methods is that they do not protect against STD s. They should therefore only be used as the only means if the woman lives in a committed relationship. Others recommended simultaneous use of a condom

Oral contraceptives

  • Oral contraceptives are pills which contain the hormones estrogen and progestin / progesterone. These hormones usually occurs in the female body and is essential for ovulation and pregnancy
  • The pill prevents ovulation. The construction of the lining of the uterus and the mucus of the cervix is ‚Äč‚Äčalso affected. Overall, this provides good protection against pregnancy
  • The pill can in some cases cause side effects and choice of contraceptive pill should be discussed with the doctor. The risk of blood clot is dependent on the type of hormonal contraception and 2.generation oral contraceptives have lower risk
  • The pill reduces menstrual pain and bleeding volume and leads eventually quite to regular bleeding
  • Women over 35 who smoke do not recommend using the pill because of increased risk of blood clots, unless there are other good reasons for it. This also applies to women of all ages who have had a stroke or who is hereditary burdened with regard to the risk of blood clots
  • Oral contraceptives are also used for the treatment of certain gynecological disorders as PCOS endometriosis

Vaginal ring

  • A vaginal ring contains the same hormones as the pill is as effective as contraceptive. Because the hormones fed to the vagina directly, you can use smaller amounts of hormones. For this reason, there will also be fewer side effects. Disregarding a 6-fold increased risk of blood clots
  • The ring is inserted once a month by the woman herself
  • The first vaginal ring set up in the vagina between the 1st and 5th day of the menstrual cycle and remains in place for 3 consecutive weeks
  • After one week ring-free break where there is any menstrual-like bleeding, set up a new ring in the vagina
  • There should be used twice contraceptives with a barrier method for the first 7 days after setting up the first ring
  • The ring is active, regardless of where it is placed in the vagina. It requires no special skills to put the ring into
  • If the ring falls out, clean it and put back in as quickly as possible
    • Has been ring outside the vagina for more than three hours, use an additional barrier method for the next seven days

Contraceptive patch

  • contraceptive patch(Trans-dermal patch) is in principle the same as oral contraceptives, but the hormones fed body through the skin. The patch contains estrogen + progestin. The hormones prevent ovulation, makes the mucus less permeable to sperm and uterine lining less susceptible to a fertilized egg
  • Each cycle goes over 4 weeks. The patch is applied to the skin a fixed day each week for 3 weeks on day 1, day 8 and day 15. The fourth week is not used patch. This week there will be a small menstruation
  • Effects and side effects are as for the pill, however, the risk of blood clots doubled compared to pill users
  • The patch is more expensive in use compared to pills

Mini Player

  • Mini Player are pills that contain only the hormone progestin / progesterone and not estrogen. The hormones affect the lining of the uterus and the mucus in the cervix so sperm does not penetrate up to the uterus. After a period of use ovulation often reduced
  • Women who use mini-pills, will often experience irregular bleeding, but preparation is rarely serious side effects
  • Mini player does not increase the risk of blood clots. They can therefore be a good alternative to the pill to women who smoke, are over 35 years or are breastfeeding
  • Mini pills must be taken at the same time every day to be effective

P- syringe

  • P-syringe contains the same type as hormone pellets and mini act as mini-pills, but more often leads to the cessation of ovulation than mini-pellets
  • P- syringe given every three months and requires that the woman goes to the doctor to get the syringe
  • It often leads to menstruation ceases after an initial period of irregular bleeding. It can take up to 8 to 10 months in some cases even longer before fertilizing capacity is recovered. For this reason p-syringe is used less and less
  • For longer-term use is a risk for increased bone loss

P-strip

  • This is also a birth control agent which contains the same type of hormone-like mini-pellets (progestin). The hormone is cast into a 4 cm long plastic rod which is placed under the skin (implanted). Released a small amount of daily hormone. The duration is 3 years
  • P-rod works by inhibiting ovulation and by making the mucus in the cervix less permeable to sperm. It is a very safe contraceptive
  • As for the other mini-pill preparations results in p-rod relatively common bleeding disorders
  • P-rod to be inserted and removed by a local anesthetic, requiring medical consultation

Morning-after pill

  • Morning-after pills a backup that can be used by a single unprotected intercourse. After pill contains a progestin hormone
  • It should be taken as soon as possible and within 72 hours after intercourse, but can be effective up to 120 hours after intercourse
  • It is estimated that this method more than halves the risk of becoming pregnant
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